The analysis shows that various locations in Mumbai are vulnerable to different disasters in varied degrees. Preparedness and mitigation plans, therefore, will have to be evolved and implementation monitored locally at the ward level to reduce the impact of the disasters. While evolving such area specific preparedness and mitigation plans, types of vulnerabilities will essentially define the levels of preparedness and mitigation strategies. These strategies will have to be concentrated more towards the social and economically backward communities, as against the vulnerability of the overall system.
MCGM Mitigation Strategy:
While devising the Mitigation Strategy it is necessary to differentiate between Disaster Preparedness and Disaster Mitigation.
Goals of Mitigation Strategy
Preparedness focuses on plans to respond to a disaster threat or occurrence. It takes into account an estimation of emergency needs and identifies the resources to meet these needs. It also involves preparation of well-designed plans to structure the entire post-disaster response, and familiarising the stakeholders, particularly the communities through training and simulation exercises.
The best examples of preparedness activities are the development of local warning and community evacuation plans through community education, evolving local response structures and administrative preparedness by way of stockpiling of supplies; developing emergency plans for rescue and relief.
Pre-disaster planning consists of activities such as disaster mitigation and disaster preparedness. Disaster mitigation focuses on the hazard that causes the disaster and tries to eliminate or drastically reduce its direct effects. Examples include strengthening buildings to make them cyclone or earthquake resistant, controlling land-use patterns to restrict development in high-risk areas and diversification of economic activities to act as insurance to offset losses in different sectors.
Structural measures such as the construction of protective works or alterations designed to diminish the vulnerability of the elements at risk, and non-structural measures, such as regulating land use and building codes, and equipping line departments for damage reduction, can all reduce the impact of a disaster on a region or a population. Everything that is done to reduce or prevent the damages that a disaster may cause is called mitigation of risks. Such mitigation measures can be integrated with normal inter-departmental coordination.
Mitigation distinguishes actions that have a long-term impact from those that are more closely associated with preparedness for, immediate response to, and short-term recovery from a specific disaster, recognizing that the boundaries are not absolute. Mitigation efforts must not only be a priority for the repair, reconstruction, and rehabilitation of developed areas, but must become a prerequisite for growth in areas that have not been developed.
Goals of Mitigation Strategy
To substantially increase public awareness of disaster risk so that the public demands safer communities in which to live and work; and
To significantly reduce the risks of loss of life, injuries, economic costs, and destruction of natural and cultural resources that result from disasters.